Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical andesitic-to-dacitic edifice is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. The youngest deposit is a SE-flank pyroclastic flow 14C dated by Hendrasto et al. (2012) at 740-880 CE. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.
The conical Sinabung volcano, seen here from the east, rises above farmlands on the Karo Plateau. Gunung Sinabung contains four summit craters, the southernmost of which is the youngest. Many prominent lava flows appear on the flanks of the volcano. No confirmed historical eruptions are known from Gunung Sinabung.
Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Last updated 2023-01-14 23:57:36