Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.
The symmetrical Semeru volcano rises to 3676 m, the highest point in Java. This 1985 view from the SE shows Semeru rising dramatically above the coastal plain during one of its frequent small explosive eruptions. Larger eruptions occasionally produce pyroclastic flows and lahars that reach as far as the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru (also known as Mahameru--"Great Mountain") has been in continuous activity since 1967.
Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1985 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Last updated 2024-02-23 17:23:23