Galunggung (Indonesia)

Status Normal Eruption 1984 2168m
Stratovolcano (Subduction zone / Continental crust (> 25 km))


The forested slopes Galunggung in western Java are cut by a large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the SE that has served to channel the products of recent eruptions in that direction. The "Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya" dotting the plain below the volcano are debris-avalanche hummocks from the collapse that formed the breached caldera about 4200 years ago. Although historical eruptions, restricted to the central vent near the caldera headwall, have been infrequent, they have caused much devastation. The first historical eruption in 1822 produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that killed over 4000 people. More recently, a strong explosive eruption during 1982-1983 caused severe economic disruption to populated areas near the volcano.

The low, forested volcano of Galunggung in western Java is cut by a 2 x 6 km breached crater formed by a massive slope failure that created the "Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya" at the foot of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been infrequent, but have caused much devastation. This view from within the breached crater shows the low Gunung Jadi cone in front of the crater headwall and lahar channels on the Cikunir River from the 1982-1983 eruption.

Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1983 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

Last updated 2023-01-14 23:31:32

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