Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.
Merapi stratovolcano in central Java is capped by an unvegetated, growing lava-dome complex. The modern edifice of Merapi, at the left in this view, is constructed to the SE of the arcuate scarp on the right formed by destruction of the older Batulawang volcano. Merapi is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Periodic collapse of its growing lava dome has produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that have devastated populated areas below the volcano.
Photo by Yustinus Sulistiyo, 1994 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Last updated 2023-11-30 05:00:27