Sakurajima (Japan)

Status Eruption Eruption 2019 1117m
Caldera (Subduction zone / Continental crust (> 25 km))


The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

A plume rises above the crater of Minami-dake (South Peak) on Sakura-jima volcano. Kita-dake (North Peak) lies at the right in this view from the SE. Activity at Kita-dake ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Sakura-jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Frequent historical eruptions have deposited ash across the bay on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities.

Copyrighted photo by Shun Nakano (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, and Geol Surv Japan, AIST,

Last updated 2023-11-22 04:25:15

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